图片 1图形来源:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高仲春高端高校阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且间隔正稳步拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**  academic pursuit学术追求。. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

后生可畏所高级加泰罗尼亚语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那完全在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership
Academy局长IvanYip称“他们普及以为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面一个收取薪酬3.8万日元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另三个为其当先二分之一学员提供中饭补贴,59%的学员有异乎平日教学须求。然则,它们都生龙活虎律致力于解除雷同难点:青年男孩远远落后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是三个十数年前无法想像的主题素材。直到19世纪70年间之前,男孩比女孩花销越来越长日子并赢得更加高等传授育,且更有希望从高校结束学业。未来,无论是富裕世界仍旧更多的缺乏国家,平衡向另一方偏斜。曾经顾虑女孩贫乏正确信心的政策制订者们,未来越多日子在强行男孩前面摇曳《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了生龙活虎项有关“男孩风险”的商量。澳大马拉加(Australia卡塔尔国举行了后生可畏项”男孩,男士,书和比特”的品类。仅仅几代时间内,前三性格别差别消失,而后风姿洒脱种性别差距又并发。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为驻地的富饶世界智库OECD于12月5号发布了风姿浪漫份简报中展现了这种反转。男士在数学领域的主导地位差相当的少会不停。在平均年龄十陆周岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩四个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现特别。不过,在阅读领域,女孩一贯维持超越地位,且间距变得越来越大。在此项切磋所涉及的陆十五个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现非凡。女孩平均比男孩超前一个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一层学习供给依赖读写技巧,OECD将它看成评估中最要害的本事。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的底工力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出四分之二的曲折也许。在此个群众体育的年轻人,因无所依据和无所经典,而更有非常大希望从学校退学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要明了怎么男生和女子在教室内显示出那样差距,先从教室之外活动入手。经常15岁女孩周周费用5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多多少个钟头,他们花费越多时间玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女子将阅读作为消遣,而独有二分一多点的男生这么做。随着荧屏逐步把眼光从本本挪开,世界上独具地点的阅读率正逐步下降,而男子下跌速度越来越快。OECD开采,在此多少个和日常女子职业平时的男子中,在读书方面包车型地铁性别差别减少了59%左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

风度翩翩上课,男子就渴望快点结束。在告诉中,多于女孩子2倍的男子以为上课是浪费时间,何况更平时迟到。仿佛过去教师努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男子领域,OECD前段时间提出老人和战术制订者指导男生远远地离开将忽视学术成就作为男人气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面临着有滋有味的下压力。但不幸的是,他们总括在坏行为上不负被人指望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有超多行事可供未受教育男子选取时,男孩渺视高校还展现没那么非理性。但是那么些日子已经未有。或然某个夜郎自大有扶植汉子学习数学,自信促使男生超越(但奇迹则变为大器晚成种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们纯熟”设想缩放“这一定义,而那黄金年代假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)。但她们贫乏自律让导师很胃疼。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

可能因为他俩这么令人难以忍受,青年男孩平日付与非常的低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在无名氏测验中的表现好于先生评估。在读书方面包车型客车性别差距减少了57%;而在数学方面,已超过的汉子将差距拉大。另生龙活虎研究显得,因老师缺少公平,即便工夫卓殊。男士也比女子更有比十分大或者被要求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

变成这种不一样对待?生机勃勃种也许的降解是导师赋予那个礼貌、热心和隔开分离打架的上学的儿童更高分数,而那一个特征在女孩中进一层广泛。在风流罗曼蒂克部分国家,以致会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另风度翩翩种恐怕是,女人,构成了十分之七的小教的和好像四分之一的初级中学年老年师,更偏好她们自身的性别,就好像男子上级偏好男人下属日常。在局地地点在法兰西网球公开赛前也是有性别主义:新加坡共和国依然允许鞭刑男人,而女人则免于该刑法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在有一点点国家为男孩表现美好提供了境遇。在拉美,阅读方面的性别差别相对超级小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)的男士落后于女人小于其余地方。然则,令人郁结的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面超过于女人的差异加大。反过来也建设构造。女孩与男孩在数学方面展现非凡的冰岛、Noreg和瑞士联邦,挣扎于让人发怒的渐渐加宽的开卷方面性别差别。自二零零一年OECD最终一回就此开展的宽泛侦查突显,少数国家男子在阅读方面际遇了女人,而在另生机勃勃对国家女子成功降低了数学方面包车型大巴反差。但尚无国家成功达成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中间教育之后,女人的超越地位继续保持。直至新近二十几年,男人大约占有大学的主流人群,特别是不利与工程领域的高阶课程。然则,随着高教在世界范围的如火如荼,女子入学增加率大约两倍于男人。在OECD报告称,女子注册率由1985年的52%进步至半数,到2025年恐怕回涨至百分之二十。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

尽管在个别女子是个外人全的OECD国家,女性数量也再慢慢攀升。与此同临时候,一些囊括U.S.、United Kingdom和澳洲国度,女子比男人人口多于二分之一。在不菲U.S.天才公立高校中,性别比例进一步平衡。大多个人以为那么些大学的不透明招生专门的工作更加的偏疼男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女性化进度如此缓慢,以致于在不短日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan
Vincent-Lancrin称,当二零零六年黄金年代份有关告知摘立刻,大家“不相信任那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

步向大学的女子,相对于他们的男人同僚,更有希望结束学业,且赢得越来越好地培育。可是,男人和女性所选科目标趋势分化。越多地女人选取教育、健康、艺术和人管理学科,而男子越多接受Computer、工程和精美科学等学科。在数学方面,女子正一直以来,而在科学、社科、商业和法则方面,她们处于超越地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相对于任何蓄意的国策,社会变革更利于于激励女性步向高等教育。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的骤降,以致晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女人搜索工作提供了便利。随着更加的多女子步入职业条件,歧视变得没那么泾渭鲜明。生机勃勃旦女子被冀望全数专门的学问发展时,女孩就意识到读书的重点。上涨的离异率使得女人意识到我供养的根本。近日,无论是学业上只怕职场上,世界外地的女孩比男孩表现出更东营想。玄而又玄,在19世界上半叶,差不离大半美利坚联邦合众国办事防止已婚女子从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女人是或不是渐渐成为主旨性别?出版于2011年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提出,最少在花旗国,女子不止教育上打头,还在专门的工作上和社会上超越。非常多国度的国策制定者忧郁数量逐年攀升的下层阶级的启蒙程度超级低的男子的前程前途。女人也应该顾虑这一点。在过去,女子平日与同阶层或超过自身阶层的男子结婚。借使这种男人很少,大多数女子只可以寻找下阶层男人或选取不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD呈现,虽不是100%,可是在许多国家,高教投入对女人的报恩超越男人。一家募集收入多少的公司America
PayScale开掘,女子对于高校文化水平的投资报酬率相对于男人而言,好低或(在极度意况下卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎相像。就算女子完整展现越发,但他们薪水水平仅为男子的3/4。首要缘由在于相对于工程或计算机科学等,女性选用教育、人文和社科那类报酬非常的低科目。然则,学术切磋显示相对于男子,女子越来越少的关切薪资,展现了谋求高回报实际不是女人追求高教的要害原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的购销和标准领域,女子依旧少之又少。女子在本校所显现优势被逆袭。在母校,杂文及考试评价是佚名的,性别因素被幸免,而爱慕女性不受性别歧视的影响。不过,来自于英国CraneField文大学的Elisabeth
Kelan称,在做事场馆古板方式再度验证自身。同等数量的男性和女子投入经济高校和法则大学,但是,10-15年之后,多数女子选拔了进一层干燥的差事路径或花销越多时间陪孩子。与此同期,随着早先习得的资历的根本日益消失而本性、雄心和经验成为更为主要的影响因素,男性在职业层级上日趋攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

非常长风姿洒脱段时间以来,流传着大器晚成种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学可能职场,女子所占比重不足,由此须要时日去建立通往高层职位的沟渠。不过40年来讲,一些国度结束学业生人数中女子产生主流,这项论证越来越站不住脚。据伯尔尼希伯来大学历史学助教ClaudiaGoldin称,女子崛起的尾声环节–平等的薪资和特等专业大概–若不开展小幅度结构调解是不会赶来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AE翼虎的新星文献中,Goldin女士发掘高水平劳重力中,在工作生活的10到15年间,男性小时报酬与女人差别庞大,首要原因在于高收入专门的职业的大幅奖金决议于长日子工作和天天应对电话为前提。全部来说,男子相对于女人更专长如此行事。在此种职业办法遍及的世界,如商业和法则,性别报酬差距照旧一点都不小。何况,以至长时间离开专门的学问意况也或然招致严重惩罚,意味着老妈索要交给很大代价。而当职业薪水首要依据工时长度时,仿佛配药房,性别薪资差距相当的小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有个别工作是难以完结灵活性的,就好像那个老总s、法院开庭审判律师、男科医务职员、银行家和局部盛名政客们。而除此以外其余干活,薪资而不是在于随即等候命令。相同的时间,受过优质教育且想要脱离专业的男子也会从中受益。可是,新的性别差距位于工资范围的另生机勃勃端。遭罪的实际不是女子,而是无本事的男人。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend转败为胜风流浪漫种趋向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑社会心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula学园课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 主要编辑:赵润琰

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